- Fracking is a remake of colonialism, but now global!
- North Africa and Arabia
- India and Indochina
- Let us learn something about fracking!
- Further Sources
- Libya, Tunisia: Regime change for fracking!
- New Zealand, Mozambique, Iran
- Mexico and USA!
In the age of colonialism the aggressors apologized their criminal acts as "delivering civilization" to the primitive people and/or bringing them the "right religion" and "rescuing their soles" from hell.
They killed, robbed, abused and enslaved the people in Europe, Africa, America and Asia and washed their bloody hands in "philanthropy". Does it make any difference, if the ruthless, greedy bastards are not called human traders but "philanthropists"?
Now we see a more dangerous, more extensive, more ruthless, more hypocrite, more cynical and brazenly declared colonialization of the world, but the humanity behaves more dump than sheep and lemmings.
What is the meaning of "globalization" for You?
Would You understand and reject it if it was called "global colonialism"?
Who wants to "globalize" You?
If You don't want to be colonialized, You should reject to be globalized!
Global water is colonialized!
Global sunlight is colonialized!
Global oxygen is colonialized!
Global air is colonized!
Global weather is colonized!
Global soil is colonialized!
Global oceans are colonized!
Global food is colonialized!
Global mind is colonized!
Global faiths are colonized!
Global knowledge is colonized!
Global health is colonialized!
Global forests are colonized!
Global life is colonialized!
Global energy is colonized!
That is called globalization!
All that is globalized by global engineering, also called geoengineering, terraforming, climate engineering or just "Solar Radiation Management" (SRM)!
Have You ever "voted" or signed a contract to allow Your sunlight be "managed" by global corporations?
Do You want to give up Your natural right to enjoy sunlight?
All over the world land and water resources are grabbed for industrial farming and fracking of oil and gas!
What does "leave in the ground" for coal means for You, if Your only energy source for heating and cooking is coal?
Why should anyone else decide about Your energy resources?
The legacy "fossil fuels", petrol and coal are demonized, but fracking is done all over the world. Where is the logic?
Do You know how fracking is done?
What is "fracked"?
How it is "fracked"?
Would You agree if they would name it earthquaking instead of "fracturing"?
Fracturing sounds more fancy, more harmless, but earthquakes are "inevitable"!
Recognize that manipulation, conditioning, brainwashing is done by words of language! Your neuronal system is "programmed" by defining new words, redefining the meaning of old words!
Do You want to allow a "trustworthy" "central global body" to give You the permission for the usage Your natural resources?
Do You want to accept a "global climate council" as Your master and happily become its slaves?
Maybe You sleep yet, others are already waking up, but yet in half delirium of manipulation, at least expressing some suspicion:
Hope the West isn't heading towards climate colonialism
"I agree with the assessment of the fifth Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report that increased temperature and increased frequency of extreme weather events will have an impact on economic activities, including agricultural production, infrastructure, and health."
Under globalization all people become colonialized! There won't be difference in "developed" and "undeveloped". Geoengineering is attacking and killing all over the world!
"The 2003 heat wave in Europe killed nearly 52,000 people within a fortnight in August. In 2005, Hurricane Katrina devastated southern US; last year, Hurricane Sandy devastated eastern US; and the bushfires in Australia and California, are examples which show that even developed countries are vulnerable to the impacts of climate change."
Feeling good by being as dumb as the "developed"!
"Climate change [geoengineering / climate engineering] affects all nations, developed or developing."
"It appears that less scientific evidence and more political motives are behind isolating India and China as the most vulnerable countries in the report. I hope developing countries are not heading towards climate colonialism."
North Africa and Arabia
Unsung Heroes of the Shale Gas Revolution
April 6, 2013 by Manzoor Roome
"... a comprehensive report was published by the US Energy of Information (EIA) in 2011 which assessed 48 gas shale basins in 32 countries and reviewed the current state of shale development. This report that was called a “key development in the natural gas arena” by Forbes and had been cited in economic reports by prominent firms such as PwC and Ernst & Young. The EIA report was also referenced by the Energy and Climate Change Committee appointed by the House of Commons of the UK Parliament."
"However, the report was incomplete. The EIA report studied only 14 regions for shale gas potential while vast land masses in the Middle-East, Africa and South Asia were not studied due to scarcity of exploration data in the public domain. Since 2011, there have been many new developments in shale gas exploration around the world."
"Algeria has been at the forefront of unconventional gas. The Algerian Energy Minister Youcef Yousfi believes that his country’s reserves of shale gas are equal to that of the United States. Algeria’s state energy company, Sonatrach, has signed a cooperation agreement with Italian company Eni SpA, for the development of unconventional gas in Algeria, with a particular focus on shale gas."
"What makes this development important in the broader European picture is that Algeria currently supplies 30% of the EU’s natural gas imports, only behind Russia who supplies 40% of the EU market. In the last webinar on the Energy Collective, Mark Caine had touched on this topic and mentioned that Europe is importing one-third of its gas consumption from Russia. Algeria benefits from the trans-mediterranean pipelines: the ‘Enrico Mattei’ and the ‘Pedro Duran Farell’ which links to Italy and Spain. Thus a boost in gas production in Algeria will give the EU an alternative to Russia’s Gazprom who charges its customers three times the US gas price."
"Nearby, Morocco has recently given the green light to five international companies to drill wells for better estimation of shale gas. However Morocco has fewer natural gas reserves, unlike its neighbours, and so has to rely on imports for internal energy needs. The Tindouf and Tadla basin are targets for exploration. These are Silurian-age shale deposits and they contain an estimated 266 Tcf and 1.5 Tcf of technically recoverable gas reserves."
"In Saudi Arabia, the U.S. oilfield services company, Baker Hughes estimates shale gas reserves to be at 645 Tcf, the fifth largest of such reserve in the world. The country’s conventional gas reserves are estimated to be around 279 Tcf. Saudi Aramco has asked Halliburton and Schlumberger to begin carrying out feasibility studies for the production of shale gas. Seismic surveys are currently being carried out in the northern desert area close to borders of Iraq and Jordan. The Saudi Oil Minister, Al-Naimi has announced a few weeks ago that they will drill seven test wells for shale gas this year."
"However, Saudi Arabia’s goal is very different. The country wants its shale gas to replace crude oil being burned by the kingdom’s power plants. Crude oil is a very expensive fuel for the domestic power market. Saudi Arabia burned 766,000 b/d of crude oil to generate electricity in the period between June and August 2012."
"Oman is also investigating exploration for shale gas, as the Sultanate looks to alleviate the gas consumption holding back its industrial and petrochemical sectors. A lack of additional natural gas resources has impeded progress in economic diversification, especially in the industrial sector. Although Oman is a net exporter of oil and natural gas, it also imports small volumes of natural gas from Qatar via UAE. The Dolphin Pipeline provides Oman’s only natural gas imports, providing approximately 200 Mcf/d. BP is considering a $20 billion project to produce tight gas reservoirs deep under the Khazzan and Makarem fields in the north-central region. Earlier this month, Dr. Al-Rumhi, Minister of Oil and Gas of Oman, said that the decision will be taken in the coming few weeks."
India and Indochina
"India has several basins and the Indian Oil Minister, Verrapa Moily, recently said India plansto unveil its shale gas policy within the next two weeks as it seeks to exploit unconventional resources very soon."
"The EIA report takes into consideration only four ‘prospective basins’, as they have indicated in the map in Figure 2. However, the Indian government has a larger estimate. Mr S.K. Srivastava, Director-General of Directorate General of Hydrocarbons, had said, “Six basins have been identified for offering subject to certain legislative changes. The Government is formulating a policy for offering these areas.” These basins are Cambay in Gujarat, Upper Assam-Arakan in the northeast, Godavari in central India, Krishna Godavari onshore in Andhra Pradesh and the Cauvery onshore and the Indo Gangatic basins."
"The Southern-Indus basin of Pakistan, from the organic-rich Sembar and Ranikot formations, has been identified with potential for shale gas. The estimates are that of 51 Tcf technically recoverable."
"Another gas rich country which was not considered in the EIA report is Indonesia. The country already has significant coalbed methane resources, located mainly in the sedimentary basins on the islands of Sumatra and Borneo.
A study by the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, estimated that Indonesia has geologically attractive shale gas resources in the Barito and Kutei basins of Kalimantan (shown above in figure 3) as well as tight gas prospects in the North and South Sumatra basins.
Edy Hermantoro, an upstream oil and gas director at the energy and mineral resources ministry of Indonesia said “Bandung Technology University estimates that Indonesia holds 1,000 tcf of shale gas reserves”. Indonesia is currently opening up the shale blocks for exploration by foreign companies."
"In South-East Asia, Thailand is also a lesser known among shale potentials. Thailand has four main onshore sedimentary basins and regions with the potential for unconventional gas resources Khorat Plateau, Northern Inter-Montane Basin, Central Plain and Southern Plains. Based on geological reviews, the shale gas deposits in the Khorat Plateau is said to be the most promising followed by the tight sandstones in the Khorat and Central/Southern Plains and modest size CBM deposits in the Northern Inter-Montane Basin.
In 2011, The Petroleum Authority of Thailand signed a MOU with Statoil to study the unconventional (and conventional) gas resources of Thailand and a small lease block has been awarded for Coal bed Methane exploration in southern Thailand."
Please first look at this video, as all fracking begins with Gasbuggy!
This video shows a nice drilling animation and doesn't show about the fracturing of the rock formation by nuclear demolitions!
This advertisement video only shows small gun shots to open holes into the rock. It doesn't show how all gas and oil could be produced without heavy fracturing of the rock formation.
What is fracking?
"Fracking is short for hydraulic fracturing. It’s a method of extracting natural gas and oil from shale deposits deep within the earth. Water, chemicals, and sand are pumped into these shale deposits under very high pressure which causes the shale to fracture, releasing the natural gas and oil trapped within. The slurry of water, chemicals, gas, and oil are then slowly pumped back out, leaving the sand to hold the fractures open so the mixture can be removed. As the slurry of chemicals, water, sand, gas and oil is pumped back out of the ground, it is separated into its different components and stored in tanks.
And it’s the removal process where the problems lie for our groundwater. It’s been estimated that anywhere between 20 and 40 percent of the chemicals are left behind. They can then seep into the groundwater, contaminating wells and rendering the water undrinkable. "
"Benzene is one of the chemical components of the chemical cocktail pumped into the ground. It’s a byproduct of petroleum production and a Class A carcinogen. Benzene exposure has long been known to cause various forms of leukemia. Benzene exposure to eyes or skin can cause irritation. Drinking benzene in you water causes stomach irritation, vomiting, convulsions, rapid heartbeat and even death."
How do offshore drilling platforms move from place to place?
"Most offshore drilling vessels/platforms are designed to be moved from location to location. The majority of exploratory wells drilled are failures, so it would not make sense to build a permanent structure at the start of a drilling campaign. We use a variety of styles of temporary/mobile structures to drill exploratory wells (and often to drill the development wells, too). These are called Mobile Offshore Drilling Units (MODUs)."
May 8, 2014
The Geology of the GoM is largely Jurassic and Cretaceous, when the basin encouraged collection and evaporation of sea water, leaving behind accumulations of Salt and Gypsum, which then domed and trapped abundant hydrocarbons."
The Submerged Lands Act (SLA) of 1953 grants individual States rights to the natural resources of submerged lands from the coastline to no more than 3 nautical miles (5.6 km) into the Atlantic, Pacific, the Arctic Oceans, and the Gulf of Mexico. The only exceptions are Texas and the west coast of Florida, where State jurisdiction extends from the coastline to no more than 3 marine leagues (16.2 km) into the Gulf of Mexico."
"State and federal ownership of the seabed:"
"WHAT TYPES OF RIGS ARE THERE?
There are three primary rig types. Jackups, semisubmersibles and drillships make up the majority of the offshore rig fleet and all are used worldwide. Other rig types such as platform rigs, inland barges and tender-assisted rigs are used as well, but they are fewer in number and are generally used in specific geographic areas.
Semisubmersibles – Used for deepwater drilling, these floating rigs have columns that are ballasted to remain on location either by mooring lines anchored to the seafloor or by dynamic positioning systems. They are used for both exploratory and development drilling.
Drillships – Also used for deepwater drilling, these ship-shaped floating rigs move from location to location under their own power. They are capable of operating in more remote locations and require fewer supply boat trips than do semis. They are maintained on location via dynamic positioning systems, and most of the rigs currently under construction are drillships.
"This image shows some of the major components of an offshore semisubmersible rig:"
- Hull – initially rigs were built out of tanker hulls, so the terminology remains
- Power Module – converts available fuel into power for the station
- Process Module – onboarding and offloading of supplies and products
- Drilling Module – the traditional drilling rig apparatus
- Quarters Module – where the crew sleeps and eats
- Wellbay Module – access to the well and other equipment
- Derrick – the oil derrick"
PEH:Water-Treating Facilities in Oil and Gas Operations
"In oil-producing operations, it is often desirable to inject water or steam into the formation to improve oil recovery. Water injection for this purpose is called a waterflood; when properly implemented, it will maintain reservoir pressure and significantly improve the oil recovery vs. primary production. Steam injection, known as a steamflood, will reduce the viscosity of oil and further enhance the oil recovery. See the chapter on Steam Injection in the Reservoir Engineering and Petrophysics volume of this Handbook."
"In offshore areas, governing regulations specify the maximum hydrocarbon and solids content in the water allowed in overboard discharges. Some studies have estimated that during the life of a well, 4 to 5 bbl of water are produced for every barrel of oil, making this fluid the largest volume of produced product in the oil and gas industry."
Produced water typically enters the water-treatment system from a two- or three-phase separator, free-water knockout, gun barrel, heater treater, or other primary-separation-unit process. This water contains small concentrations (100 to 2000 mg/L) of dispersed hydrocarbons in the form of oil droplets. Because the water flows from this equipment through dump valves, control valves, chokes, or pumps, the oil-particle diameters will be very small (< 100 μm)."
Flow Measurement of Produced Water or Sea Water during Injection
"Water injection is a common way to extend reservoir life through intelligent well management. In order to raise the reservoir pressure and improve the production rate, sea water or produced water is injected into the well. The injected water quantities are monitored by flow meters and transmitted to the process control system."
"The sea water injection takes place in two steps. Firstly the booster pumps suck the water out of the reservoir's water tank to create a slight admission pressure of approximately 200 psi. The injection pumps need this pressure in order to work cavitation free. Secondly the injection happens via thick walled steel pipes, where pressures of about 4500 psi can be reached during the process."
Concentration Measurement of Glycol for Gas Dehydration
"A natural gas exploration company in the middle east extracts gas offshore, which is then piped onshore where it is prepared for transportation and further processing."
"As the natural gas is extracted from the wellhead, it expands and thus its temperature strongly drops. In order to prevent the formation of ice and avoid frozen fittings, it must be heated. For this purpose, an 80% monoethylene glycol mixture (MEG) is warmed up to 285 °F onshore and then pumped out to the gas extraction fields offshore. Here it is mixed into the extracted gas streams to elevate the temperature and to simultaneously dehydrate the gas."
"The MEG and the natural gas are then piped back, as a mixture, towards the mainland. Onshore, the MEG is regenerated and stored in a reservoir tank. It is then ready to be fed back into the cycle."
Injection (Chemical / Gas / Water)
"Challenge: Certain chemicals may need to be injected into oil or gas wells to counteract such conditions as scaling, hydrate formation, and corrosion. Traditionally, the injection dosages to individual wells have been controlled through valves located on the topside facilities. However, this requires a separate chemical feed line for each well – all the way from the chemical supply tank on the platform, through the control valve and the umbilical to the subsea well. In other words, the distribution of chemicals to each well is performed on the surface. For a subsea field development, the larger the number of trees and the longer the step-out from the host platform result in additional costs for each separate stainless steel tube bundled in the subsea umbilical."
"Hydraulic fracturing is a water-intensive business: Bursting open just one shale gas well can require pumping millions of gallons of water underground.
Yet much of the United States' fracking activity takes place in areas that are suffering from high or extremely high water stress, according to Ceres, an advocacy group for sustainable investment.
About 57 percent of the nearly 110,000 wells that were hydraulically fractured in the last five years are in these highly stressed regions, including basins in Texas, Colorado, Oklahoma and California, Ceres found in an interactive map and report published Thursday."
The Fracking Map of CERES.
Fracking: Impacts - Water
"Development of shale energy resources requires a large amount of water, with estimates ranging between two to nine million gallons per well. However, there is a lack of clarity about how much water is used to frack in California."
Drought raises appeal of using natural gas instead of water to fracture rock in wells
Betreibt Exxonmobil Im Jahr 2030 ca 1000 Erdöl-und
Erdgasbohrungen in Deutschland und hat bis dahin für die
durchgeführten Fracks etwa 150 verschiedene Chemikalien eingesetzt?
3 Solutions To Water-Intensive Fracking
"Channel Fracturing Technology"
Colonializm by mass destruction of ranking!
What is "carbon efficient"?
Are You carbon efficient?
Can You live with less breathing and eating?
Can You live without carbon?
Why don't they ask for reduction of real poisons like mercury, lead, arsenic, aluminium, uranium is phosphate fertilizers, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated solvents, acetone, MEK, toluene, benzene, xylene, polychlorinatedbiphenyl ethers, alcohols. trihalomethanes, phenols, pesticides / insecticides / herbicides, detergents, organo-metalic compounds, sulfides, ammonia, perchlorate?
Why do they attack the molecule of life, CO2?
Accelerating Returns From The Transition To A Low Carbon Economy
How deep to frack?
Just to expose some people as liars or bad informed, who claim to know that fracking occurs only up to 2km depth!
WHAT IS DEEP WATER FRACKING? (DEEP OFFSHORE DRILLING)
"Where once drilling was confined to water not much more than a thousand feet deep, in recent years this has risen to almost 10,000 feet (about 2 miles) of water. Now a major push is under way to start drilling in waters deeper than 10,000 feet."
Shale Gas and Fracking in Europe
"Shale gas is methane gas contained in rocks called shales. It is typically found in underground layers anything from a few meters to tens of meters thick and at maximum depths of 6 to 7 kilometres. Worldwide technically recoverable shale gas reserves are sizeable
and estimated to be ~200 trillion cubic metres (tcm), of which ~16 tcm are located in Europe."
"In areas in the USA where strict water treatment policies are not in force, these
fluids are often disposed of partially treated in deep underground wells (disposal wells) at depths of approximately 4 to 5 km."
Maximum depth of IGas shale well at Tinker Lane cut by almost halfBY RUTH HAYHURST ON AUGUST 25, 2016
"But the planning application for the site near Barnby Moor, currently being considered by Nottinghamshire County Council, said the well would be a maximum of 3,300m deep."
U.S. shale oil and gas sector surges back to life: Kemp
The shale gas map!
Look at this map to know where the water has to be delivered for hydraulic fracturing of shale petrol and gas!
Learn, where the Tropospheric Aerosol Injection will be applied to harvest and steer the water to the fracking areas.
Learn, where people will be forced to move from by staged extreme weather and/or earthquake catastrophes and wars and along the water routes, like in Louisiana (USA), North Africa, Middle East.
Read the maps to get into the mind of fracking psychopaths!
Libya, Tunisia: Regime change for fracking!
I would like to recommend the blog article of Alessandro Bacci from Friday, May 31, 2013 about shale gas fracking in North Africa, particularly Libya, after the disempowerment and killing of Muhammar Ghaddafi.
Shall Libya Develop Its Unconventional Gas Reserves? Some Preliminary Considerations
"Shale gas resources are widely present across much of North Africa. The majority of shale gas is concentrated in Algeria (9th position in the ranking of the countries with shale gas reserves, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration (E.I.A.) in 2011), Libya (8th position) and Tunisia (25th position). "
"Libya's shale gas reserves are located in two basins: the Ghadames Basin (Tannezuft and Frasnian formations) straddling between Algeria, Libya and Tunisia, and the Sirte Basin (Sirt-Rachmat and Etel formations), which is located entirely within Libya's borders. "
Algeria has 231 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of technically recoverable shale gas resources with 159 TCF of proven reserves,
Tunisia has 18 TCF of technically recoverable shale gas resources with 2.3 TCF of proven reserves.
"The map below provides a basic understanding of the world's distribution of shale gas basins. The values are expressed in cubic meter (1 cubic meter is equal to 35.3 cubic feet)."
"There are at least four major issues:"
"1) The environmental impact — This point was touched upon extensively in Istanbul. The impact of shale drilling (1500 wells to 3000 wells to produce 2 billion standard cubic feet per day (BBCF/d) against 40 wells to 60 wells to produce 2 BBCF/d for conventional gas) on water supplies causes a lot of concern. According to data released last year by Halliburton, a U.S. oilfield services company, a shale well may require up to 5 million gallons of water. This quantity is equal to 50 percent of the water consumed per day in a major city."
New Zealand, Mozambique, Iran
A warning from Queensland
Exxon's Mozambique LNG Acquisition Demonstrates Strategic Advantage
All South Pars phases to be operational by 2015: Iran oil minister
Iran offers 50 oil projects to foreign investors
DUBAI, November 29, 2015
Iran hits new record in natural gas production
06/14/15 Source: Press TV
LNG World, South Pars
Iran had to use Chinese compressors in South Pars during sanctions era
17 May 2017 08:43 (UTC+04:00)
"Iran had to replace the German compressors, purchased for South Pars gas fields, with Chinese ones during sanctions era, managing director of Pars Oil and Gas Company (POGC), Mohammad Meshkinfam said."
Iran inaugurates Phase 12 of South Pars field
"The biggest phase of the South Pars field, Phase 12, officially launched operation before the end of the current Iranian year (March 20) in a ceremony in the presence of President Hassan Rouhani and his delegation."
Das schmutzige Pokerspiel um Syrien
Die Türkei, der Westen und Russland ringen um riesige Gasvorkommen in Nahost
South Pars, Iran
"Forget Terrorism": The Real Reason Behind The Qatar Crisis Is Natural Gas
Great exploration targets in the Persian Gulf: the North Dome/South Pars Fields
Wednesday, February 13, 2013
Fiber Optic Distributed Sensing
"As the worldwide oil reserve is decreasing, exploitation of difficult reservoirs has developed rapidely. Compared to standard wells, the production of these reservoirs requires complex and high performance instrumentation such as fiber optic distributed pressure, distriburted temperature and distributed strain monitoring. "
Eni discovers a supergiant gas field in the Egyptian offshore, the largest ever found in the Mediterranean Sea
"Eni has made a world class supergiant gas discovery at its Zohr Prospect, in the deep waters of Egypt. The discovery could hold a potential of 30 trillion cubic feet of lean gas in place covering an area of about 100 square kilometres. Zohr is the largest gas discovery ever made in Egypt and in the Mediterranean Sea. Eni will immediately appraise the field with the aim of accelerating a fast track development of the discovery that will utilise at best the existing offshore and onshore infrastructures. "
"LOOP plays a key role in meeting U.S. daily energy needs. Over the last three decades, LOOP has handled more than 12 billion barrels of foreign and domestic crude oil into the U.S. LOOP has shown itself to be a safe and efficient partner for the delivery of large volumes of crude oil."
OIL AND GAS OFFSHORE RIGS: A PRIMER ON OFFSHORE DRILLING
May 8, 2014
"Recently The Lower Tertiary in the GoM has been in the news with huge potential – 15 billion barrels of oil. Compare that to EIA estimated 29 billion barrels in reserve onshore US, and you have a great exploration opportunity."
"To Explore and Produce offshore you need a platform (typically referred to as a rig) from which to drill wells, extract product, and in most cases store the oil or gas until it can be transported to refineries or other destinations."
"The Geology of the GoM is largely Jurassic and Cretaceous, when the basin encouraged collection and evaporation of sea water, leaving behind accumulations of Salt and Gypsum, which then domed and trapped abundant hydrocarbons."
"The Submerged Lands Act (SLA) of 1953 grants individual States rights to the natural resources of submerged lands from the coastline to no more than 3 nautical miles (5.6 km) into the Atlantic, Pacific, the Arctic Oceans, and the Gulf of Mexico. The only exceptions are Texas and the west coast of Florida, where State jurisdiction extends from the coastline to no more than 3 marine leagues (16.2 km) into the Gulf of Mexico."
"A total of 2,000 billion cubic metres (bcm) of natural gas has been discovered in the exclusive economic zones (EEZ) of Cyprus, Israel and Egypt and exploration continues. For the sake of comparison, the total annual consumption of natural gas in the EU was 426 bcm in 2015."
Oil Majors See Huge Opportunity In Eastern MediterraneanBy Drilling Info - Apr 20, 2017, 3:00 PM
"The latest super-giant and play-opening discovery is, of course, Zohr in 2015 lying over 160km offshore, and in WD of 1,450m. Over 30 Tcf of dry gas was discovered in a massive Miocene-Cretaceous reef structure, on the edge of the Erastothenes Platform. Italian giant Eni is pressing forward quickly to bring this onstream, and pipe-laying from the field to shore (150 km) by the Saipem deep water lay-barge “Castoro Sei” is ongoing and should be completed later in 2017. Imponderable for the moment is the possibility of oil; current well Zohr Deep 1 is targeting a deeper Cretaceous-Jurassic carbonate reef play below the gas field. The initial Zohr prospect was postulated to be oil prone. However, Egypt has a large negative energy balance, and serving the large domestic market with more gas is the number one priority."
"But the gas that is getting the European politicians so excited is from the Levant Basin in Israel and Cyprus. In the Israeli offshore sector, a series of discoveries has been made in waters of up to 1,500m. Noble Energy, starting its exploration in 2008, has made major gas discoveries; Tamar (2009), Dalit (2009), Dolphin (2011), Noa 2 (2011), Leviathan (2011), Tanin (2012), Pinnacles (2012) and Karish (2013). Most of the biogenic gas was found in a thick succession of deep marine turbidite sands of Oligo-Miocene age, with smaller but significant amounts found in younger, Pliocene turbidite sands. Out of the Noble discoveries, so far only Tamar and the smaller Noa are onstream, with Leviathan to follow in 2019. The Israeli government, fearful of dominance of the sector by just one player, has ordered the divestment of Karish and Tanin to Energean, a Greek company, which is in the process of farming down."
"In the Cyprus offshore sector to the north-west, Noble also discovered Aphrodite (2011), where the gas resource figures are most recently estimated at 4.54 Tcf. So, taken together, we now see quantities of gas to make potential export look much more attractive to offset the considerable deep water investments which will be required. Noble Energy currently cites in excess of 35 Tcf of gross resources in these two offshore sectors."
"The big export markets for gas are not in the Middle East; they are in Western Europe. The principal challenge is to lay a 1300km deep sea pipeline through the Mediterranean to Greece (west coast) and across the Adriatic to landfall in Italy. The European high-pressure gas transmission network (ENTSOG) can be picked up there. Alternatives have been suggested – such as landfall in Southern Turkey – but the former is preferred for many non-technical reasons."
The Israel-Hezbollah War of 2006 and the Ceyhan-Haifa Pipeline
"With the help of the only NATO friendly country of the Caspian Sea, Azerbaijan, the Americans managed to construct a pipeline that bypassed both Iran and Russia, using the energy corridor Azerbaijan-Georgia-Turkey, transferring Caspian energy to the Mediterranean Sea (Ceyhan) and to the Black Sea."
"They did so, in order to provide the European markets with an alternative to the Russian energy, thus decreasing the Russian influence over Europe, hoping that eventually they would manage to influence some of the other corrupted dictators of the Caspian countries too, who are currently under Russian influence, since Azerbaijan’s energy reserves are clearly inadequate to compete with the Russian ones."
"Moreover they planned to construct a new underwater four leg pipeline from Ceyhan to Haifa, which would carry crude oil, natural gas, electricity and water from Turkey to Israel, which would distribute it in the whole region, but also to the port of Eilat and then to South Asia, again bypassing Iran (red line on the map). You can read about the Ceyhan-Haifa pipeline at the above European Commission link, pages 10 and 11, tables 3.2.3 and 3.2.7, or you can see it visually at the following map.
http://geopoliticsrst.blogspot.gr/2012/04/complexity-of-eastern-med-energy-games.html""Also note that the rich in oil Kirkuk in North Iraq (Iraqi Kurdistan), is also connected to the Turkish port of Ceyhan, with the pipeline Kirkuk-Ceyhan (yellow line on the map). Therefore the underwater Ceyhan-Haifa connection would actually be a connection of Baku and Kirkuk with the Israeli port of Eilat in the Red Sea, and finally to South Asia (Pakistan, India, China) bypassing Iran. After describing the Ceyhan pipelines and before turning to the Israel-Lebanon War of 2006, I must also say a few words about the economic and geopolitical implications of these pipelines."
B. Z. AUGUST 10, 2016
"Playing in a Different League
Egypt sits on proved gas reserves of more than 65.2 trillion cubic feet (tcf) according to the BP Statistical Review of World Energy. These constitute the third-largest reserves in Africa, after Nigeria and Algeria, and 17th globally, just behind Norway (65.6 tcf). By comparison, the US Geological Survey (USGS) estimates that the gas resource potential of the Levant Basin—which covers 83,000 square kilometers of the eastern-most portion of the Mediterranean area, stretching from Israel to Syria, and including Lebanon and Cyprus—is 122 tcf, whereby only part of that total figure will be classified as proved reserves once discoveries are made and confirmed as commercial."
"Egypt’s oil potential is not as impressive, though not insignificant, with 3.5 billion barrels (bnbls) of oil, ahead of Yemen and the UK, ranking 29th in the world. By comparison and according to the USGS, the whole Levant Basin could hold 1.7 bnbls of oil and natural gas liquids"
Parkplaceenergy: Turkey Producing Properties
"Our new subsidiaries, formerly the Tiway Companies, own interests in three producing areas, two of which have significant potential:
- South Akcakoca Sub-Basin: offshore gas play (36.75% WI); substantial untapped contingent and discovered resources
- Cendere: onshore oil play (19.6% WI); long life – estimated 10+ years remaining
- Bakuk: onshore gas play (50% WI); operated by one of our new subsidiaries
Five wells were drilled, tested and then temporarily abandoned.Each of these wells tested significant daily quantities of gas. We believe these 5 wells have up to 60 Bcf in contingent resources. We will look for ways to connect and produce these resources:
- South Akcakoca
- West Eskikale
Based on the same technology that discovered the existing wells, we have identified an additional 8 undrilled prospects defined on 3D seismic data."
"Pipelines versus LNG
The greatest debate surrounding the Leviathan and Aphrodite discoveries is how to transport the oil and gas to market. There seem to be four possibilities on the table: a pipeline to Turkey; a pipeline to Greece; a liquefaction plant in Cyprus; and a floating liquefied natural gas (FLNG) vessel."
"The first option is politically complicated. Building a pipeline to Turkey that would feed into existing pipeline infrastructure to Europe could be the most cost-efficient choice. ... "
"The second option would entail constructing a pipeline from Cyprus to Crete and from Crete to Greece, connecting then to existing pipelines throughout Europe. However, this option appears to not be commercially viable. At least that seemed to be the conclusion at the 2nd Cyprus Energy Forum in December 2012. Solon Kassinis, vice president of the CNHC, hinted that this idea has been all but abandoned. The main concerns appear to be the high construction cost, long construction time, falling electricity demand and prices in Europe, and the necessary long-term supply contracts that would be linked to the price of oil."
"The third option consists of constructing a liquefaction plant in Cyprus, where the natural gas from both the Leviathan and Aphrodite fields could be liquefied and shipped. The major benefit of this option is that the LNG can then be shipped to a variety of markets (Europe as well as Asia), garnering higher prices on the spot market. The largest drawback however is the price tag – LNG terminals typically cost about $10 billion (as compared to $1 billion for a Cyprus-Turkey pipeline). Kassinis explained at the 2nd Cyprus Energy Forum that Cyprus was contemplating an LNG facility with up to three trains for a total capacity of up to 15 MM tons/yr. An LNG train is a liquefaction and purification facility, which typically has capacity for 5 MM tons of natural gas a year. ""For those wondering about constructing an LNG plant in Israel instead of Cyprus, this option appears impractical because of limited space, environmental concerns, and security problems in Israel.""The fourth option is mooring a floating LNG vessel at Leviathan and Aphrodite. On one hand, this option has great advantages – exportable LNG and lower cost relative to a pipeline to Greece – but on the other hand the technology is new and untested. There are also fears that the vessel would be vulnerable to terrorism."
Where Will Gulf Of Mexico Oil Production Go From Here?By Ron Patterson - Sep 05, 2016, 1:02 PM CDT
"The 3 peaks in deepwater production, in 2002-2004, 2009-2010, and the present peak from 2014, are the results of advances in technologies that have allowed industry to march into deeper water and produce from deeper reservoirs.
The earliest peak was, in a sense, an extension of shelf play types into deepwater. The reservoirs were Pleistocene to Miocene in age, mostly bright-spot associated, outboard of salt, and ranged in depth from ~10,000-20,000’. The biggest fields in this trend were Shell’s Mars/Ursa complex in Mississippi Canyon, and its Auger field in Garden Banks. Peak production approached 1 million barrels of oil per day (mmbopd)."
Why are there earthquakes in the northern part of Pakistan?
Just look where they drill for gas and oil!
Geology Of Pakistan in Relation to Oil and Gas fields
Development of natural gas as a vehicular fuel in Pakistan: Issues and prospects
1st Muhammad Imran Khan 2nd Tabassam Yasmeen
Article · March 2014 with 1,050 Reads
"A land-based pipeline from Iran to India would be four times cheaper than any other option, even after taking into account transit fee payments to Pakistan"
Mexican Frontier Hydrocarbon Basins*
"In the Cenozoic Pacific margin-type basins, gas shows and possibly oil shows in the U.S. extension, have been encountered so far. Potential source rocks have been identified in these basins. Structural and stratigraphic trapping has been suggested and sandstone reservoirs have been encountered."
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